Do Plant Cells Have Ribosomes? Role & Importance


Ribosomes are an intercell complex structure that is created from protein & RNA and works as the protein synthesis center of cells. The main purpose of ribosomes is to produce & provide proteins from amino acids. 

So, do plant cells have ribosomes? Yes, ribosomes can be found in both plant and animal cells. This is because all living creatures need protein to function, and there is no better protein production center than ribosomes. 

And in this article, I will go through all the details regarding ribosomes in plant cells: what they are, how they are used, their location, importance, types of structures, and more.

Therefore, stick to the very end of this article, and I am confident that you will know everything is concerting ribosomes’ impact on plant cells. 

What are Ribosomes?

What are Ribosomes

A Ribosome is a macromolecular machine that can be found in prokaryotic & eukaryotic cells, meaning it is available in all living cells. 

The core function of ribosomes is to conduct biological protein generation through natural protein synthesis. Ribosomes do this by linking amino acids with each other with the synthesis order set by mRNA to create polypeptide chains. 

There has been some debate about whether ribosomes can be regarded as organelles. Generally, organelles are mainly referred to as cellular component, which includes phospholipid membranes, but ribosomes don’t include such.

That being said, this is very argumentative as there are other characteristics of organelles that ribosomes meet. That’s why ribosomes are labeled as non-membranous organelle to many. 

The Types of Ribosomes

There are quite a few variants of ribosomes out there. But mainly, ribosomes can be divided into two types in plant cells. They are:

  • 70S Ribosome 
  • 80s Ribosome

70S Ribosomes

70S Ribosomes

These variants of ribosomes are mainly found in prokaryotic cells, mainly resembling structures of that of bacteria and green-blue algae. These are very small compared to other ribosomes and weights very low. It is also referred to as a eubacterial ribosome. 

70S ribosomes consist of 30S sub-unit & 50S sub-unit. The smaller sub-unit or the 30S consists of twenty proteins & 16S rRNA. On the other hand, the bigger sub-unit consists of 30 proteins and 55 rRNA.

This ribosome is mostly found in low-class fungi and bacteria.

80S Ribosomes

80S Ribosomes

When I talk about plant cell ribosomes, I think of 80S ribosomes in general. They are bigger in size and weight compared to 70S ribosomes. It can also be divided into two subunits, 40S, and 60S. The protein quantity varies from one ribosome to the other. 

Sometimes plant cells don’t have the complete 80S ribosome. For example: in chloroplasts, the number is 71S, while in mitochondria of fungi it is 77S. 

But rest assured, ribosomes that are above the 70S are part of the 80S family and are found in every eukaryotic cell-based plant and animal cell.

The Structure of Ribosomes

Structure of Ribosomes

Both 70S & 80S ribosomes share a similar structure. All of them are hydrated, porous, and consist of two subunits. One is larger than the other. For the 70S it is 50S & 30S, and for the 80S it is 60S & 40S.

The subnets are narrowly separated from each other but not entirely divided. Well, the reason why they remain together without being completely separated is for the high concertation factors of Mg++. But when this concentration starts to lose its density, the ribosomes can be separated. 

The ribosome is made of protein & RNA, which some refer to as ribonucleoprotein. Almost 60% of the ribosome consists of RNA.

In all cells, structure ribosomes are found in the cytosol, and they can be scattered all across the cytoplasm. So, in short, the structure of ribosomes is free-flowing and can be found anywhere in the cell except for the nucleus.

How Ribosomes Work

How Ribosomes Work

The main function of a ribosome is to conduct protein synthesis. This is the process where ribosomes naturally generate proteins from amino acids for the cell.

Multiple ribosomes begin this process all at the same time. They engage on a single mRNA strand and will start creating polyribosomes. 

Once they are done decoding the message from the mRNA, they proceed to format peptide bonds. This occurs as the tRNA starts to interact with the amino acid complex, just as mRNA provides the translation of genetic codes. 

During this whole process, ribosomes also work as the protector for the entire production. It specifically protects the mRNA from the actions taken by the nucleus while shielding the polypeptide chains from digestive enzymes.

Do Plant Cells Have Ribosomes?

Plant cells are eukaryotic cells that have a functioning nucleus and require protein to properly function. Therefore, plant cells also consist of ribosomes so that it gains an ample amount of protein to survive and function optimally. 

What’s the Location of Ribosomes in a Plant Cell?

Ribosomes can be found in the cytosol or in anywhere in the cytoplasm of a plant cell. There isn’t any specific location of ribosomes in any cell structure. They can be anywhere in the cytoplasm. But they do not enter the nucleus. 

The number of ribosomes in a plant cell can also be different depending on the type of plant we are considering. It can consist of one to ten or even ten million!

How do Plant Cells Use Ribosomes?

Plant cells utilize ribosomes the same way any other cell structure uses them. They use ribosomes for protein synthesis. There is no difference in the functionality too.

The ribosomes get command from the nucleus and start to construct protein from the amino acids, which are delivered by the cytoplasm. There isn’t any sort of exception in different plant cells. The entire procedure will always remain the same under any conditions, as long as it is a eukaryotic cell.

What Would Happen If A Plant Cell Didn’t Have Ribosomes?

Thinking about what might happen if a plant cell was missing ribosomes? 

That plant cell will die. Because if there aren’t any ribosomes in a plant cell, then the following will occur:

No Repair of Cellular Damage

If there isn’t any protein, then there won’t be any mitotic cellular division. This means your cells won’t be able to repair themselves, and any damage that the cell receives will be permanent. And there won’t be any available fix for it.

Stalled Hormone Production

The plant cell will stop producing hormones that control various functions of a plant-like producing food, oxygen & carbon dioxide, osmosis, and many others.

And they will start to shut down as soon as the production of protein stops. So, if there aren’t any ribosomes then the cell won’t even grow up as it won’t have the necessary hormones to do so in the first place.

Fall of Cellular Structure

The plant cell’s overall structure will fall if there aren’t any ribosomes around. This is because ribosomes are a core part of a cell’s structure.

No More Cellular Division

If there are no ribosomes then there won’t be any kind of cellular division on that cell. This means not only that the mitosis division is stopped, miosis, which allows cells to produce new cells will stop as well. 

So, the genetic information of that cell will be lost forever due to zero cellular division.

Overall Stoppage of Cellular Functions

The plant cell will stop functioning as a cell as ribosomes aren’t there. It won’t be beneficial for the plant will be treated as a completely useless cell to the rest of the cells of that plant.

So, if there is no ribosome, the plant will eventually die, and there is no way around it. That’s why ribosomes are crucial for a plant cell’s proper functionality and survival. 

Conclusion

And there you have it. These are all the general information that you need to know about ribosomes and their effect on plant cells. 

If you have come this far in the article, then you already know how invaluable ribosomes are to plant cells and why they are the key factor for the overall functionality of a plant cell.

Related Posts:

Do Plant Cells Have Cytoplasm? Find The Answer Now

Do Plant Cells Have Chloroplasts? Everything You Need to Know

What Does a Stem Do For A Plant? Learn About Functions of Plant Stems

Do Plant Cells Have DNA? A Detailed Answer

Do Plant Cells Have Lysosomes? Everything You Need to Know

Mohammed Rujel

Over the Years, I have gained a lot of experience in different aspects of gardening. I actively learned about plants and how to care for them, and also have a lot of experience in dealing with pests and diseases. My expertise is on teaching how to grow healthy plants and make them look their best.

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